Obesity & Overweight
Obesity and Overweight – Treatment until now
Apart from the fact that most well known and common weight loss instructions, special diets, magic formulas, as well as other formulations, have failed according to international figures, they are also outdated scientifically and often hazardous to health. Moreover, they have been implicated in the further triggering of Overweight pandemic, and other conditions, such as Prediabetes for the patients.
We should not forget that Obesity and Overweight are usually followed by strokes and shorter life expectancy, higher rates of cancer and other chronic degenerative diseases, as already mentioned.
What actually happens is that, instead of treating Obesity and Overweight, as well as the other diseases that may follow, according to their causes, only instructions for diet are provided, creating a hormonal chaos, premature wear and Aging.
They aggravate the problem, lack scientific documentation, and they are reproduced by experts around the world, without any effects for patients.
To the contrary, they usually affect our organism and our hormones incorrectly, causing reduction of muscle mass and bone destruction, patients feel exhausted, muscle weakness, depression, alternating between different diseases, without ever becoming healthy again.
Obesity and Overweight
Obesity and Overweight is a Disease. It is now classified among Chronic and Metabolic Diseases.
The rates in which it is expanding and growing, has led us to talk about the Epidemic of the 21 st century globally.
According to the World Health Organization – WHO – the rates of Obesity have more than doubled since 1980.
Until 2014, among adults above 18 years old, more than 600 million people were suffering from Obesity.
At the same time, more than about 2,000,000,000 (two billion) adults were Overweight (Excess weight).
Moreover, child obesity rates are stunning. More than 41 million children below the age of five were overweight in 2014.
In the United States of America, one in three citizens suffers from Obesity.
In Europe, Obesity accounts for more than 13% of Deaths annually.
In Europe, again, 59% is Overweight (Excess weight) and 18% suffer from Obesity.
For current Global figures, please see the World Obesity Federation.
As far as Greece is concerned, today, according to the official data only, individuals suffering from Obesity are 2,670,000. This corresponds to 30% of the population, and it is constantly rising (OECD – Overview of Health Policy in Greece).
- 30% of Greek women have Obesity (1 st position in Europe)
- 30% of Greek men have Obesity (2 nd position in Europe)
- 26% of boys and 19% of girls between the ages of 6 and 17 years old are overweight or have Obesity
- In 2010, 66% of Greeks were Overweigh and until 2030 this figure will be 77%
- Greece is the first country in Europe for child Obesity
- Crete is the region of Europe with the largest rates in Obesity
More than 50% of the population of OECD countries suffers from Obesity and Overweight.
Obesity and Overweight – What it is
Obesity and Overweight is the well known, abnormal, or exceeding the normal, accumulation of fat in the body.
Obesity and Overweigh are among the Metabolic Disorders, i.e. disorders that affect metabolism.
Metabolism is the process and its mechanisms, during which our body uses appropriately the foods consumed to transform them to energy. The energy our organism needs at cellular level to function.
Metabolism is substantially the transformation of energy from one form to another. Therefore, when we receive each type of food (carbohydrates, proteins, fats), the organism, through metabolism, transforms it to glucose (sugar). This glucose is the energy molecule that should enter into our cells so that they perform their activities. It is our organism’s “fuel”.
Obesity and Overweight – Definition according to the World Health Organization
Obesity and Overweight are defined and determined according to the World Health Organization – W.H.O. according to the Body Mass Index (B.M.I.).
This is calculated, in the metric system, by dividing an individual’s weight (M) in kilograms (kg), with the squared height (h) in meters (m), i.e. it is (kg/m 2 ).
BMS = weight (kg) / (height) 2 (m 2 ).
- Adults with BMS from 18.5 to 24.9 have Normal Weight
- Adults with BMS from 25 to 29.9 have Excess Weight, are Overweight
- Adults with BMS from 30 or more have Obesity
Example: Let’s consider an adult, whose weight is 79 kilos and height 1.73 meters. The Body Mass Index, BMS = 79/1.732 = 26.39
Therefore, this individual has Excess Weight, is Overweight.
Obesity and Overweight – Correlations
Obesity and Overweight cause multiple additional risks and Chronic Diseases to the organism. According to this approach, which is documented by a large number of epidemiologic and scientific studies, individuals who are Obese and Overweight are patients.
Obesity and Overweight cause increased morbidity, affect the quality of life, and reduce life expectancy.
Obesity and Overweight reduce life expectancy by 7 to 10 years.
The main health problems related and directly linked to Obesity and Overweigh are:
Cardiovascular Diseases, Myocardial infarction, and Hypertension
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus,
Respiratory Diseases and Sleep Apnea,
Some types of Cancer,
The general view that Obesity and Overweight constitute a factor for the development of the above mentioned diseases is partly false.
Obesity and Overweight – Chronic and Metabolic Diseases
Chronic and Metabolic Diseases, which may manifest at different times and we believe that have as their starting point Obesity and Overweigh are not necessarily caused directly from it. They just have the same root causes.
It has been observed that patients with Chronic and Metabolic Diseases are then presenting Obesity or undesired Weight Gain (Overweight).
This is something that also happens in case of Hormonal imbalance (Menopause, Andropause, Thyroid disorders, such as Hypothyroidism), Depression, etc.
The scientific approach according to new data in relation to Chronic Diseases has changed.
New data, observations and studies demonstrate that, in the case of Chronic Diseases, independently of the way they manifest, share a common denominator.
Obesity and Overweight – Treatment
Scientific data that have been documented and approach the topic of Chronic
Metabolic Diseases and Obesity from a causal point of view, guide us to manage individually and as a group the following:
- The organism’s ability to Burn and Metabolize Fat
- Brain’s functioning
- Hormonal Balance of the organism, in every system
- Proper Biochemical composition of the cell, so that to manage successfully reduction or Elimination of Toxicity
- Inadequacy or deficiency of micro-nutrients.
The human body has evolved within millions of years according to certain specifications. Temperature limits, as well as its needs in oxygen, water, nutrients, trace elements, minerals, and vitamins were specified. When some of these specifications vary, the human body is not very tolerant.
Overall burden has influenced significantly human physiology and cell’s biochemical balance. Instead of attempting to restore what’s normal through our methods, i.e. the specifications according to which we have been created to function, we further burden ourselves with charlatanism and futuristic methods.
It’s not a coincidence that 40 years ago, only the wealthier social classes were portly, but nowadays it’s the exact opposite. Obesity and extra weight appear on the less wealthy social classes.
Proper management includes specialized markers, through specific exams that determine the real causes of the accumulation of extra weight.
In addition, before administering any type of treatment, all environmental factors are taken into account, as well as the lifestyle of each patient.
Obesity and Overweight are chronic conditions, which may underlie for a long time before its manifestation, therefore long-term management is required.
Diets that last for ten days won’t solve the problem, neither the insufficiency that caused it.
The duration of treatment regimes administered for the treatment of Overweight individuals is six months, while for Obese individuals eighteen months.
Therapeutic protocols include, depending on the laboratory findings and the overall clinical picture, micro-macro- nutrients treatments, Natural (Biomimetic) hormones Protocols, and Molecular nutrition.
Patients are gradually losing weight, but they are not feeling hungry or a lack of energy.
Dr. Nikoleta Koini M.D
Doctor of Functional, Preventive, Anti-ageing and Regenerative Medicine.
Diplomate and Board Certified in Anti-aging, Preventive, Functional and Regenerative Medicine from A4M (American Academy in Antiaging Medicine)
Exposure to Environmental Chemicals, NCEH Publication No. 03-0022. Atlanta,
GA: Centers for Disease Control.
2. Pelletier C, Imbeault P, Tremblay A. Energy balance and pollution by organochlorines and polychlorinated biphenyls. Obes Rev. 2003;4(1):17-24.
3. Evans JL, Goldfine ID, Maddux BA, Grodsky GM. Oxidative stress and stress-activated signaling pathways: a unifying hypothesis of type 2 diabetes. Endocrine Reviews
4. Girard D. Activation of human polymorphonuclear neutrophils by environmental
contaminants. Rev Environ Health 2003;18(2):75-89.
5. Sonnenberg GE, Krakower GR, Kissebah AH. A novel pathway to the manifestations
of metabolic syndrome. Obes Res. 2004;12(2):180-186.
6. Wang Z, Zhou YT, Kakuma T, et al. Leptin resistance of adipocytes in obesity: role of
suppressors of cytokine signaling. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2000;277 (1):20-26.
7. Beattie JH, Wood AM, Newman AM, Bremner I, et al. Obesity and hyperleptinemia in
metallothionein (-I and -II) null mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95(1):358-363.
8. Goto M, Arima H, Watanabe M, et al. Ghrelin increases neuropeptide y and agoutirelated peptide gene expression in the arcuate nucleus in rat hypothalamic organotypic] cultures. Endocrinol. 2006.;147(11):5102-5109.
9. Wynne K, Stanley S, McGowan B, Bloom S. Appetite control. J Endocrinol.
10. Dube MG, Pu S, Kalra SP, et al. Melanocortin signaling is decreased during neurotoxin-induced transient hyperphagia and increased body-weight gain. Peptides.
11. Shoemaker RC, House DE. A time-series study of sick building syndrome: chronic,
biotoxin-associated illness from exposure to water-damaged buildings. Neurotoxicol
12. Catania A, Delgado R, Airaghi L, et. al. alpha-MSH in systemic inflammation.
Central and peripheral actions. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1999;885:183-187.
13. Moller DE. Potential role of TNF-alpha in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and
type 2 diabetes. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2000;;11(6):212-217.
14. Dube MG, Pu S, Kalra SP, et al. Melanocortin signaling is decreased during neurotoxin-induced transient hyperphagia and increased body-weight gain. Peptides.
15. Shoemaker RC, House DE. A time-series study of sick building syndrome: chronic,
biotoxin-associated illness from exposure to water-damaged buildings. Neurotoxicol
16. Gladen BC, Ragan NB, Rogan WJ. Pubertal growth and development and prenatal
and lactational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and dichlorodiphenyl
dichloroethene. J Pediatr. 2000;136(4):490-496.
17. Tremblay A, Pelletier C, Doucet E, et al. Thermogenesis and weight loss in obese
individuals: a primary association with organochlorine pollution. Int J Obes Relat
Metab Disord. 2004;28(7):936-939.
18. Imbeault P, Tremblay A, Simoneau JA, et al. Weight loss-induced rise in plasma pollutant is associated with reduced skeletal muscle oxidative capacity. Am J Physiol
Endocrinol Metab. 2002;282(3):E574-E579.
19. Nicolau GY, Pesticide effects upon the circadian time structure in the thyroid, adrenal and testis in rats. Endocrinologie. 1982;20(2):73-90.
20. Duke University Integrated Toxicology Program, National Institute of
Environmental Health Sciences/NIH/DHHS, Obesity: Developmental Origins and
21. Moskaug JO, Carlsen H, Myhrstad MD, et al. Polyphenols and glutathione synthesis
regulation. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;81(1 Suppl):277S-283S.
22. Masuda A, Miyata M, Kihara T, et al. Repeated sauna therapy reduces urinary 8-epiprostaglandin F(2alpha). Jpn Heart J. 2004;45(2):297-303.
23. Biro S, Masuda A, Kihara T, Tei C. Clinical implications of thermal therapy in
lifestyle-related diseases. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2003;228(10):1245-1249.
24. Hyman M. Ultrametabolism. New York: Scribner; 2006.
25. Hyman MA. Systems biology: the gut-brain-fat cell connection and obesity. Altern
Ther Health Med. 2006;12(1):10-16
26. Hyman MA. Refrigerator rights–the missing link in health, disease, and obesity,
Altern Ther Health Med. 2005;11(4):10-12.
27. Lyon M, Bland J, Jones DS. Chapter 31: Clinical approaches to detoxification and
biotransformation. In: Jones, DS (Ed). Textbook of Functional Medicine. Gig Harbor,
WA: Institute for Functional Medicine; 2006.